Eksistensi Moda Transportasi Berbasis Aplikasi Daring: Analisis Loyal-Kontraproduktif Pengguna Dengan Kebijakan Pemerintah Sebagai Efek Pemoderasi

Michael Christian, Glisina Dwinoor Rembulan

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Perkembangan teknologi informasi khususnya dalam integrasi aplikasi moda transportasi berbasis daring turut menambah alternatif pilihan bagi masyarakat. Di Indonesia terdapat dua pemain besar dalam jasa transportasi berbasis aplikasi daring yaitu Gojek dan Grab. Berbagai kemudahan dan fasilitas yang menarik yang dapat membentuk kepuasan dan loyalitas pelanggan turut disajikan oleh penyedia jasa moda transportasi berbasis aplikasi daring. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis loyalitas pengguna moda transportasi berbasis aplikasi daring yang didasari oleh banyaknya hambatan dan intervensi yang terjadi. Penelitian kuantitatif ini menggunakan model struktural dengan SMART PLS 3.0 dengan 150 sampel. Hasi penelitian ini menjelaskan bahwa loyalitas dipengaruhi oleh faktor kualitas layanan dan kebijakan pemerintah sebagai regulator. Di sisi lain, penelitian ini juga menjelaskan bahwa loyalitas tidak dipengaruhi oleh keandalan layanan yang diberikan. Secara efek moderasi, kebijakan pemerintah sebagai pemoderasi tidak memberikan pengaruh terhadap loyalitas. Perlunya edukasi dari perusahaan penyedia jasa moda transportasi berbasis aplikasi daring kepada para mitra/pengemudi masih diperlukan untuk membentuk standar kualitas layanan dan loyalitas.

Kata kunci: loyalitas, kualitas layanan, transportasi daring

 

ABSTRACT

The development of information technology, especially in the integration of online-based transportation mode applications, also adds to alternative choices for the community. In Indonesia, there are two big players in online application-based transportation services, namely Gojek and Grab. Various facilities and attractive facilities that can shape customer satisfaction and loyalty are also presented by online application-based transportation service providers. This study aims to analyse the loyalty of users of online application-based modes of transportation which is based on the many obstacles and interventions that occur. This quantitative research uses a structural model with SMART PLS 3.0 with 150 samples. The results of this study explain that loyalty is influenced by service quality factors and government policies as a regulator. On the other hand, this study also explains that loyalty is not influenced by the reliability of the services provided. In terms of moderating effect, government policy as moderating does not influence loyalty. The need for education from online application-based transportation service providers to partners / drivers is still needed to establish service quality and loyalty standards.

Keywords: loyalty, service quality, online transportation


Keywords


loyalty, service quality, online transportation

Full Text:

PDF

References


Agrawal, V., Tripathi, V., & Agrawal, A. M. (2015). Methodology for Evaluating Service Quality of Public Transport: Case of Delhi, India. Journal of Supply Chain Management Systems, (4).

Anderson, D. N. (2014). ‘“Not just a taxi”’? For-profit ridesharing, driver strategies, and VMT. Transportation, (41), 1099–1117. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11116-014-9531-8

Antonucci, L., Crocetta, C., D’Ovidio, F. D., & Toma, E. (2012). Passenger satisfaction: A multi-group analysis. Quality and Quantity, 48(1), 337–345.

Anwar, A. A. (2017). Online vs Konvensional: Eksistensi dan Konflik Antar Moda Transportasi di Kota Makassar. ETNOSIA: Jurnal Etnografi Indonesia, 2(2), 220–246.

Apostolopoulou, E., Nellas, G., Ganoudis, D., & Marinaki, A. (2000). Understanding quality needs and expectations of potential metro users in Athens. In European Transport Conference, 71–82.

Bakti, I. G. M. Y., & Sumaedi, S. (2015). P-TRANSQUAL: a service quality model of public land transport services. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 32(6), 534–558. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJQRM-06-2013-0094

Bass, P., Donoso, P., & Munizaga, M. (n.d.). A model to assess public transport demand stability. Transp Res Part A Policy Pract, (45), 755–764.

Chikwendu, D. ., Ejem, E., & Ezenwa, A. (2012). Evaluation of service quality of Nigerian airline using servqual model. Journal of Hospitality Management and Tourism, 3(6), 117–125.

Choi, M., Han, K., & Choi, J. (2015). The effects of product attributes and service quality of transportation card solutions on service user’s continuance and word-of-mouth intention. Serv Bus, (9), 463–490.

Christian, M. (2019a). Dampak Penggunaan Teknologi Berbasis Aplikasi Pada Usaha Restoran Berskala Mikro & Kecil. Journal of Business and Applied Management, 12(2), 131–140.

Christian, M. (2019b). Telaah Keniscayaan Iklan Di Kanal Youtube Sebagai Perilaku Khalayak Di Kalangan Milenial (Study The Inevatibility of Advertisements on Youtube Channels as Audience Behavior among Milennials). Bricolage : Jurnal Magister Ilmu Komunikasi, 5(2), 141–158.

Christian, M., Purwanto, E., & Wibowo, S. (2020). Technostress Creators on Teaching Performance of Private Universities in Jakarta During Covid-19 Pandemic. Technology Reports of Kansai University, 62(6), 2799–2809.

CNBC Indonesia. (2019). Setelah Permenhub, Driver Desak Ojol Diatur Undang- Undang. Retrieved July 27, 2020, from www.cnbcindonesia.com website: https://www.cnbcindonesia.com/tech/20190311155652-37-59920/setelah-permenhub-driver-desak-ojol-diatur-undang-undang

Daziano, R. ., & Bolduc, D. (2013). Incorporating pro-environmental preferences towards green automobile technologies through a Bayesian hybrid choice model. Transportmetrica, 9(1), 74–106.

de Abreu e, S. J., Morency, C., & Goulias, K. (2012). Using structural equations modeling to unravel the influence of land use patterns on travel behavior of workers in Montreal. Transport Res Part A, (46), 1252–1264.

de Oña. J, de Oña. R, Eboli, L., & Mazzulla, G. (2013). Perceived service quality in bus transit service: A structural equation approach. Transport Policy, 29, 219–226.

Duarte, A., Garcia, C., Giannarakis, G., Limão, S., Polydoropoulou, A., & Litinas, N. (n.d.). New approaches in transportation planning: happiness and transport economics. Netnomics, (11), 5–32.

Eboli, L, Forciniti, C., & Mazzulla, G. (2012). Exploring land use and transport interaction through structural equation modelling. Procedia-Soc Behav Sci, (54), 107–116.

Eboli, Laura, & Mazzulla, G. (2015). Relationships between rail passengers’ satisfaction and service quality: a framework for identifying key service factors. Public Transp, (7), 185–201.

Erdil, S. ., & Yildiz, O. (2011). Measuring service quality and a comparative analysis in the passenger carriage of airline industry. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 24, 1232–1242.

Freitas, A. L. . (2013). Assessing the quality of intercity road transportation of passengers: An exploratory study in Brazil. Transportation Research Part A, (49), 379–392.

Fujii, S., & Van, H. (2009). Psychological determinants of the intention to use the bus in Ho Chi Minh City. Journal of Public Transportation, 12(1), 97–110.

Gituri, M. I., Sumabrata, J., & Tjahjono, T. (2014). Studi Analisis Faktor-Faktor Pengaruh Ketersediaan Infrastruktur Transportasi Sepeda Dan Pemilihan Moda Transportasi Sepeda Di Universitas Indonesia. The 17th FSTPT International Symposium, 721–728. Jember: Jember University.

Govender, K. K. (2014). Public transport service quality in South Africa: A case study of bus and mini bus services in Johannesburg. African Journal of Business Management, 8(10), 317–326.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2014). Multivariate Data Analysis (7th ed.). Essex: Pearson Education Limited.

Hess, S., Fowler, M., & Adler, T. (2012). A joint model for vehicle type and fuel type choice: Evidence from a cross-nested logit study. Transportation, 39(3), 593–625.

Indriyarti, E. R., & Christian, M. (2020). The Impact Of Internal And External Factors On Taxpayer Compliance. Journal of Business & Applied Management, 13(1), 33–48.

Irfan, S., Kee, D., & Shahbaz, S. (2012). Service quality in rail transport of Pakistan: A Passenger Perspective. World Applied Sciences Journal, 18.

Iseki, H., & Taylor, B. . (2008). Style versus service? An analysis of user perceptions of transit stops and stations in Los Angeles. Journal of Public Transportation, 13(3).

Jain, S. K., & Goel, P. (2012). Consumer Attitudes towards Business Firms’ Marketing Philosophy, Consumerism and Government Regulations in India: A Cross-sectional Analysis. Vision, 16(4), 253–271.

Joewono, T. B., Santoso, D. S., & Ningtyas, D. U. (2012). The causal relationship of the service quality of the TransJakarta Busway. Public Transp, (4), 77–100. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12469-012-0053-5

Johal, S., & Zon, N. (2015). Policymaking for the Sharing Economy: Beyond Whack-a-Mole. Retrieved from https://munkschool.utoronto.ca/mowatcentre/wp-content/uploads/publications/106_policymaking_for_the_sharing_economy.pdf

Kennedy, J. (2011). Current Trends in Service Quality: A Transportation Sector Review. Journal of Marketing Development and Competitiveness, 5(6), 104–115.

Lai, W-T, & Chen, C.-F. (2011). Behavioral intentions of public transit passengers—the roles of service quality, perceived value, satisfaction and involvement. Transp Policy, (18), 318–325.

Lai, Wen-Tai, & Chen, C.-F. (2011). Behavioral intentions of public transit passengers-The roles of service quality, perceived value, satisfaction and involvement. Transport Policy, 18(318–325). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2010.09.003

Liao, F., Molin, E., & van Wee, B. (2017). Consumer preferences for electric vehicles: a literature review. TRANSPORT REVIEWS, 37(3), 252–275. https://doi.org/10.1080/01441647.2016.1230794

Lokadata. (2019). Bom waktu lonjakan tarif ojek online. Retrieved July 27, 2020, from lokadata.id website: https://lokadata.id/artikel/bom-waktu-lonjakan-tarif-ojek-online

Majeed, S., & Batool, Z. (2016). Evaluation Of Factors That Encourage Public Transit Usage: A Case Study Of Lahore. Pakistan Journal of Science, 68(2), 184–194.

Motala, M. (2016). The “Taxi Cab Problem” Revisited: Law and Ubernomics in the Sharing Economy. B.F.L.R, (31), 467–511. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2961964

Mouwen, A. (2015). Drivers of Customer Satisfaction with Public Transport Services. Transportation Research: Part A: Policy And Practice, 78, 1–20.

Muhammad, R., & Surbakti, M. S. (2013). Analisa Pemilihan Moda Transportasi Untuk Perjalanan Kerja Antara Shuttle Service Dan Kereta Api Dengan Menggunakan Metode Stated Preferrence (Studi Kasus : Bandung – Jakarta). Jurnal Teknik Sipil USU, 2(2).

Musti, S., & Kockelman, K. . (2011). Evolution of the household vehicle fleet: Anticipating fleet composition, PHEV adoption and GHG emissions in Austin, Texas. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 45(8), 707–720.

Narh, A. T., Thorpe, N., Bell, M. C., & Hill, G. A. (2016). Do new sources of traffic data make the application of Chaos Theory to traffic management a realistic possibility? TRANSPORT REVIEWS2, 36(5), 635–658. https://doi.org/10.1080/01441647.2016.1140687

Oktaviani, & Saputra, A. Y. (2015). Alternatif Pemilihan Moda Transportasi Umum (Studi Kasus: Bus Dan Kereta Api Trayek Kota Padangkota Pariaman). Annual Civil Engineering Seminar 2015, 360–367. Pekanbaru: Universitas Riau.

Papageorgiou, M., Diakaki, C., Dinopoulou, V., Kotsialos, A., & Yibing, W. (2003). Review of road traffic control strategies. Proceedings of Insitution of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, 2043–2067.

Pavlina, P. (2015). The Factors Influencing Satisfaction with Public City Transport: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach. Journal of Competitiveness, 7(4), 18–32.

Putri, H. S., & Diamantina, A. (2019). Perlindungan Hukum Terhadap Keselamatan Dan Keamanan Pengemudi Ojek Online Untuk Kepentingan Masyarakat. Jurnal Pembangunan Hukum Indonesia, 1(3), 392–403.

Ramadhan, M. A. F. (2019). Pengaruh Citra Merek, Kepercayaan, dan Komitmen Terhadap Loyalitas Pelanggan Aplikasi Transportasi Online GOJEK di Kota Malang. JIMMU: Jurnal Ilmu Manajemen, 4(2), 153–169.

republika. (2019). Kemenhub Tegaskan Ojek Bukan Angkutan Umum Meski Diatur. Retrieved July 27, 2020, from republika.co.id website: https://www.republika.co.id/berita/ekonomi/korporasi/19/01/10/pl41ja370-kemenhub-tegaskan-ojek-bukan-angkutan-umum-meski-diatur

Said, H. (2002). Evaluation method of service quality parameters in transport networks. Automation Congress, 2002 Proceedings of the 5th Biannual World. IEEE Xplore.

Siswanto, J., & Riyanto, B. (2014). Pengembangan Model P Referensi Perilaku Pemilihan Rute Trans Portasi Darat Dengan Analisis Conjoint Di Kota Semarang. The 17th FSTPT International Symposium, 44–52. Jember: Jember University.

Susilo, Y., Joewono, T., Santosa, W., & Parikesit, D. (2007). A reflection of motorization and public transport in Indonesia: lessons learned from Jakarta metropolitan area and future implications towards better transportation development in developing countries. J East Asia Soc Transp Stud, (7), 299–314.

Tempo.co. (2019). Aturan Ojek Online, Dilema Tarif Hingga Ancaman Gugatan. Retrieved July 27, 2020, from https://fokus.tempo.co/ website: https://fokus.tempo.co/read/1187241/aturan-ojek-online-dilema-tarif-hingga-ancaman-gugatan/full&view=ok

Tre´panier, M., Habib, K., & Morency, C. (2012). Are transit users loyal? Revelations from a hazard model based on smart card data. Can J Civ Eng, (39), 610–618.

Wen, C.-H., Lan, L. W., & Cheng, H.-L. (2005). Structural Equation Modeling to Determine Passenger Loyalty Toward Intercity Bus Services. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, (1927), 249–255. https://doi.org/10.1177/0361198105192700128

Widhiasthini, N. W., & Subawa, N. S. (2019). Sisi Lain Praktek Transportasi Online Sebagai Transformasi Ekonomi Politik Di Era Revolusi Industri 4.0. Public Administration Journal, 1(4), 202–215.

Widiarta, I. B. P. (2010). Analisis Pemilihan Moda Transportasi Untuk Perjalanan Kerja (Studi Kasus : Desa Dalung, Kecamatan Kuta Utara, Badung, Bali). Jurnal Ilmiah Teknik Sipil, 14(2), 218–225.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30813/jbam.v13i2.2247

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


UNIVERSITAS BUNDA MULIA PRESS
PROGRAM STUDI MAGISTER MANAJEMEN
Lantai 3 Ruang Pascasarjana - Universitas Bunda Mulia
Jl. Lodan Raya No. 2, Ancol – Jakarta Utara 14430, Indonesia
Telp: +62 21 692 9090 ext.1317
Email: jobamubm@gmail.com

 

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

View My Stats