Elita Kirana, Ediasri T Atmodiwirjo, Debora Basaria


ABSTRACT: Children with autism have deficit characteristics in social communication and social interaction, as well as restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, and limited interests or activities. As children grow and engage in a wider environment, this is become a problem because of the lack of social skills on children with autism. The purpose of this research is to improve the social skills of children with autism. There are several methods that can be applied to children with autism to improve their social skills. One of them is the DIR (Developmental, Individual Differences, & Relationship Based) Floortime method. DIR Floortime aims to help children reach the stage of their emotional development through play activities. This type of research is a clinical case study, involving two middle childhood boys that are diagnosed with a mild level of autism. The instruments used in this study are Autism Social Skills Profile and Functional Emotional Assessment Scale. This research involves 20 sessions, conducted in May until June 2018, consisting of 10 sensory sessions and 10  symbolic sessions for each subject. The results of this research show an improvement in social skills in both participants, marked by an increase in the post test scores, but not significantly. Qualitatively, both subject demonstrates an improvement on social skills in their daily behavior after they had participated in the intervention.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, middle childhood, DIR Floortime,social skills


ABSTRAK: Anak autistik memiliki karakteristik kesulitan dalam komunikasi dan interaksi sosial serta adanya yang minat terbatas, perilaku berulang, atau keterikatan dalam minat dan aktivitas. Hal ini menjadi masalah saat anak tumbuh seiring usia dan terlibat dalam lingkungan yang lebih luas karena kurangnya kemampuan sosial pada anak autistik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan sosial anak autistik. Ada beberapa metode yang dapat diterapkan pada anak autistik untuk meningkatkan kemampuan sosial. Salah satunya adalah metode DIR (Developmental, Individual Differences, & Relationship Based) Floortime. DIR Floortime  bertujuan membantu anak mencapai tahap perkembangan emosionalnya melalui kegiatan bermain. Jenis penelitian ini adalah case study yang melibatkan dua orang partisipan, yaitu anak laki-laki berusia middle childhood dengan autisme level Mild. Instrumen dalam penelitian ini adalah Autism Social Skills Profile dan Functional Emotional Assesment Scale. Penelitian ini berlangsung selama 20 sesi intervensi yang dilaksanakan pada bulan Mei hingga Juni 2018. Sesi intervensi terdiri dari 10 sesi sensori auditori dan 10 sesi simbolik bagi masing-masing subjek. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya peningkatan yang signifikan pada kapasitas emosi, tetapi kemampuan sosial kedua partisipan tidak meningkat secara signifikan. Secara kualitatif, kedua subjek menunjukkan kemampuan sosial yang lebih baik setelah mengikuti sesi intervensi, hal ini tampak dalam perilaku sehari-hari.

Kata kunci: autisme, middle childhood, DIR Floortime, kemampuan sosial

Full Text:



American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, Fifth edition. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing.

Anderson, K. (2010). Visual support & beyond. Diunduh dari

Bellini, S. (2006). Building Social Relationships: A Systematic Approach to Teaching Social Interactin Skills to Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum DIsorders and Other Social Difficulties. Diunduh dari pada 8 Maret 2018

Bellini, S., & Hopf, A. (2007). The development of the Autism Social Skills Profile: A preliminary analysis of psychometric properties. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 22(2), 80-87.

Berk, L. E. (2014). Development through the lifespan, 6th Edition. Boston : Pearson Education.

Blaney, P. H., Krueger, R.F. & Millon, T. (2015). Oxford textbook of psychopathology. Oxford University Press.

Canadian Paediatric Society. (2017). Screen time and young children: Promoting health and development in digital world. Paediatrics & Child Health, 2017, 461–468

Charman, T. & Stone, W. (2006). Social & communication development in autisme spectrum disorders: Early identification, diagnosis & intervention. New York: The Guilford Press.

Cohen, S., Fulcher, B. D., Rajaratnam, S. M., Conduit, R., Sullivan, J. P., St Hilaire, M. A., ... & Braga‐Kenyon, P. (2018). Sleep patterns predictive of daytime challenging behavior in individuals with low‐functioning autism. Autism Research, 11(2), 391-403.

Cook, C. R., Gresham, L. K., Barreras, R. B., Thornton, S., & Crews, S. D. (2008). Socials skills training for secondary students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders: A review and analysis of the meta-analytic literature. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 16, 131–144.

Dionne, M., & Martini, R. (2011). Floor time play with a child with autisme: A single-subject study. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 78(3), 196-203.

Dixon, D. R., Tarbox, J., & Najdowski, A. (2010). Social skills in autisme spectrum disorders. In Social behavior and skills in children (pp. 117-140). Springer, New York, NY.

Greesspan, S. & DeGangi, G.A. (2000). Functional Emotional Assessment Scale. Pediatric Disorders of Regulation in Affect and Behavior, pp.341-360

Greenspan, S., & Wieder, S. (2008). DIR®/Floortime™ Model. The International Council on Developmental and Learning Disorders.

Greenspan, S. I. (2001). The affect diathesis hypothesis: The role of emotions in the core deficit in autism and in the development of intelligence and social skills. Journal of Developmental and Learning Disorders, 5(1), 1-45.

Hess, E. B. (2013). DIR®/Floortime™: Evidence based practice towards the treatment of autisme and sensory processing disorder in children and adolescents. International Journal of Child Health and Human Development, 6(3), 267-274.

Howlin, P. (2000). Autism and intellectual disability: diagnostic and treatment issues. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 93(7), 351-355.

ICDL DMIC. (2005). Diagnostic Manual for Infancy and Early Childhood. Bethesda : Interdisciplinary Council on Developmental and Learning Disorder.

Johns, B. H., Crowley, E. P., & Guetzloe, E. (2005). The central role of teaching social skills. Focus on Exceptional Children, 37(8).

Lal, R., &Chhabria, R. (2013). Early intervention of autisme: A case for Floor Time approach. In Recent Advances in Autism Spectrum Disorders-Volume I. InTech. Lang, R., Hancock, T. B., & Singh, N. N. (Eds.). (2016). Early Intervention for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Springer.

Lang, R., Hancock, T. B., & Singh, N. N. (Eds.). (2016). Early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder. Springer.

Levesque, R. J. (Ed.). (2011). Encyclopedia of adolescence. Springer Science & Business Media.

Lindgren, S., & Doobay, A. (2011). Evidence-based interventions for autisme spectrum disorders. The University of Iowa, Iowa.

Little, S. G., Swangler, J., & Akin-Little, A. (2017). Defining Social Skills. In Handbook of Social Behavior and Skills in Children (pp. 9-17). Springer, Cham.

Lord, C., Cook, E. H., Leventhal, B. L., & Amaral, D. G. (2000). Autism spectrum disorders. Neuron, 28(2), 355-363.

Mash, E.J., & Wolfe, D.A. (2013). Abnormal child psychology (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Matheson, R. C. (2016). DIR Floortime Therapy Rebecca C. Matheson Lynchburg College July 2016.

Mercer, J. (2015). Examining DIR/Floortime™ as a treatment for children with autisme spectrum disorders: A review of research and theory. Research on Social Work Practice, 27(5), 625-635.

Pangestika, V. (2013). Pengaruh pendekatan floor time terhadap kemampuan berbahasa pada anak autistik.

Pajareya, K., & Nopmaneejumruslers, K. (2011). A pilot randomized controlled trial of DIR/Floortime™ parent training intervention for pre-school children with autistic spectrum disorders. Autism, 15(5), 563-577.

Pelios, L. V., & Lund, S. K. (2001). A selective overview of issues on classification, causation, and early intensive behavioral intervention for autisme. Behavior Modification, 25(5), 678-697.

Pijar Psikologi. (2017). Apa Kabar anak dengna autisme di Indonesia. Diunduh pada 2 Januari 2018 dari

Powers, M.D. (2010). Children with autisme: A parent’s guide. Bethesda, MD: Woodbine House.

Rao, P. A., Beidel, D. C., & Murray, M. J. (2008). Social skills interventions for children with Asperger’s syndrome or high-functioning autisme: A review and recommendations. Journal of autisme and developmental disorders, 38(2), 353-361.

Robinson, S., Goddard, L., Dritschel, B., Wisley, M, and Howlin, P. (2009). "Executive functions in children with autism spectrum disorders." Brain and cognition 71, no. 3 (2009): 362-368.

Ryan, J. B., Hughes, E. M., Katsiyannis, A., McDaniel, M., & Sprinkle, C. (2011). based educational practices for students with autism spectrum disorders. Teaching Exceptional Children, 43(3), 56-64.

Sattler, J.M. (2002). Assessment of Children: Behavioral and Clinical Applications. San Diego: Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc.

Sharpe, D. L., & Baker, D. L. (2007). Financial issues associated with having a child with autisme. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 28(2), 247-264.

Shores, R., & Jack, S. (1996). Special issue on research needs and issues in education for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 22(1), 5-7.

Suryana, A. (2004). Terapi autisme, anak berbakat dan anak hiperaktif. Jakarta: Progres Jakarta.

Tse, J., Strulovitch, J., Tagalakis, V., Meng, L., & Fombonne, E. (2007). Social skills training for adolescents with Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autisme. Journal of autisme and developmental disorders, 37(10), 1960-1968.

Wall, K. (2004). Autism and early practice: A guide for early years professional, teachers and parents. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.

White, S. W., Keonig, K., & Scahill, L. (2007). Social skills development in children with autisme spectrum disorders: A review of the intervention research. Journal of autisme and developmental disorders, 37(10), 1858-1868.

Yayasan Ayo Main. (2009). Komunitas DIR/Floortime Indonesia. Diunduh pada 2 Januari 2018 dari



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License