Samuel Dimas Suryono


Making the organization ideal and effective is every leader dream. Thanks to the “social problem-solving” phenomenon and a leader-centric view of leadership, leader is considered the most important person that bear this responsibility. This burden will eventually lead to high stress levels and affect the leader's performance; hence the ideal and effective organization need the dynamics of leaders and followers, not solely on leader’s shoulder. Leader-member exchange (LMX) is one theory that discusses this, especially the quality of leader-follower relationship. A good leader-follower relationship will give birth to ideal followers who contribute more. This contribution is measured by how much followers are willing to act outside of their usual duties, known as organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). If a leader wants to make the organization run effectively, leader should bring attention to LMX and OCB. This study is a meta-analysis study that aims to determine the effect size correlation between LMX and OCB. This research is based on 14 studies with a total subject of 4031 employees from various backgrounds. The analysis was carried out using the Meta-mar website (free-online meta-analysis service) and was based on the number of samples (N) and the correlation value (r). The results of the analysis of the random effect model obtained a value of r (effect size) of .32, indicating a medium effect size for the correlation of these two variables. Through this finding, the researcher highlights that leader should focus on LMX and OCB. However, it should be noted that the relationship between LMX and OCB is highly dependent on 1) work ethic based on the culture of a country, 2) differences in organizational culture across sectors, and 3) the existence of possible intermediary variables.


Membuat organisasi menjadi ideal dan efektif adalah keinginan setiap leader. Berkat fenomena social problem solving dan pandangan leadership yang leader-sentris, leader (pemimpin) dianggap sebagai sosok terpenting yang memiliki tanggung jawab tersebut. Beban yang tinggi ini justru akan memunculkan tingkat stress tinggi dan akan memengaruhi kinerja leader. Sehingga organisasi ideal dan efektif tidak akan tercipta melalui kemampuan leader seorang. Perlu dinamika leader dan follower dalam konstruksi leadership yang efektif. Leader-member exchange (LMX) adalah salah satu teori yang membahas mengenai hal tersebut, khususnya mengenai kualitas relasi atasan (leader) dan bawahan (follower). Relasi leader dan follower yang baik akan melahirkan follower ideal yang berkontribusi lebih terhadap organisasi. Kontribusi ini diukur dari seberapa besar follower mau bertindak di luar tugasnya, atau yang lazimnya dikenal sebagai organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Sehingga jika seorang leader ingin membuat organisasi berjalan dengan efektif, dapat memunculkan perhatian pada LMX dan OCB. Penelitian ini merupakan sebuah penelitian meta-analisis yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui besaran effect size korelasi antara LMX dan OCB. Penelitian ini didasari dengan 14 penelitian dengan total subyek sebesar 4031 karyawan dan bawahan dari berbagai latar belakang. Analisis dilakukan menggunakan website Meta-mar (free-online meta-analysis service) dan didasari pada jumlah sampel (N) dan nilai korelasi (r). Hasil analisis dari random effect model memperoleh nilai r (effect size) sebesar .32, menunjukkan adanya medium effect size untuk korelasi kedua variabel ini. Melalui temuan ini peneliti menyoroti bahwa leader perlu membina LMX yang baik untuk memunculkan OCB pada followernya. Namun perlu diperhatikan bahwa relasi LMX dan OCB sangat bergantung pada 1) etika kerja berdasarkan budaya sebuah negara, 2) perbedaan kultur organisasi lintas sektor, serta 3) keberadaan kemungkinan variabel perantara.


LMX; OCB; dinamika; leader; follower; organisasi

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