Oemar Madri Bafadhal, Anang Dwi Santoso




It is projected that the spread of disinformation infodemic among the COVID-19 pandemic will be as quickly or even more rapidly than the virus itself. The absence of the government in quickly and accurately providing information is suspected of being the basis of this phenomenon. Several studies have attempted to examine how the disinformation is shared, absorbed and driven to other behaviors. Meanwhile, no preliminary study maps the features of disinformation to be used practically for prevention and for overcoming disinformation itself. This study aims to fill this gap by examining 174 disinformation during the pandemic of COVID-19. There are five types of COVID-19 disinformation in Indonesia, namely governance, health, foreign relations, business and crime. We argue that if these five categories are not taken seriously, they will create a public distrust of government and science. Another result that arises is the apathy towards the virus which will endanger the wider community. On the basis of these results, we propose a strict government intervention in the provision of knowledge and clarification of disinformation in different forms of social media.

Keywords:  hoax news, COVID-19, disinformation, misinformation





Infodemi disinformasi di tengah pandemi COVID-19 diproyeksi sama cepat atau bahkan lebih cepat dari virus itu sendiri. Fenomena ini ditengarai terjadi karena absennya negara dalam menyediakan informasi yang cepat dan tepat. Berbagai macam studi telah mencoba menguji bagaimana disinformasi dibagikan, dikonsumsi dan mengarahkan masyarakat untuk melakukan aktivitas tertentu. Sementara itu belum ada studi pendahuluan yang memetakan karakteristik disinformasi secara praktis untuk dimanfaatkan bagi tindakan preventif dan penanggulangan disinformasi itu sendiri. Studi ini bertujuan untuk mengisi celah tersebut dengan menganalisis 174 disinformasi selama pandemi COVID-19. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat lima kategori disinformasi tentang COVID-19 di Indonesia yaitu politik, kesehatan, luar negeri, bisnis, dan kriminalitas. Kami berargumen bahwa kelima kategori tersebut jika tidak ditangani secara serius akan memunculkan sikap ketidakpercayaan publik terhadap otoritas pemerintah dan ilmu pengetahuan. Akibat lain yang muncul adalah sikap apatis terhadap virus tersebut yang akan membahayakan masyarakat luas. Berdasarkan temuan tersebut, kami merekomendasikan kehadiran pemerintah yang tegas dalam memberikan informasi serta mengklarifikasi disinformasi yang muncul di berbagai macam media sosial.

Kata Kunci: berita hoaks, COVID-19, diinformasi, misinformasi


hoax news, COVID-19, disinformation, misinformation


Bafadhal, O. M. (2017). Komunikasi Ritual Penggunaan Aplikasi WhatsApp: Studi Konsumsi Berita Lewat Group WhatsApp. Jurnal Komunikasi Indonesia, 6(1), 49–56.

Balmas, M. (2014). When Fake News Becomes Real: Combined Exposure to Multiple News Sources and Political Attitudes of Inefficacy, Alienation, and Cynicism. Communication Research, 41(3), 430–454.

BBC. (2020, April 16). Coronavirus: Facebook alters virus action after damning misinformation report - BBC News. Retrieved May 20, 2020, from

Bellström, P., Magnusson, M., Pettersson, & Sören, J. (2016). Facebook usage in a local government: A content analysis of page owner posts and user posts. Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, 10(4), 548–567.

Blumler, J. G. (2016). The Fourth Age of Political Communication. Politiques de Communication, 1(19), 30.

BLUMLER, J. G., & KAVANAGH, D. (1999). The Third Age of Political Communication: Influences and Features. Political Communication, 16(3), 209–230.

Brennen, A. J. S., Simon, F. M., Howard, P. N., & Nielsen, R. K. (2020). Types , Sources , and Claims of COVID-19 Misinformation. Oxford University Press, (April), 1–13.

Brummette, J., DiStaso, M., Vafeiadis, M., & Messner, M. (2018). Read All About It: The Politicization of “Fake News” on Twitter. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 95(2), 497–517.

Carmo-Fonseca, M., Mendes-Soares, L., & Campos, I. (2002). Patients’ use of the Internet for medical information. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 17(3), 180–185.

Carvin, A. (2020). Webinar 20: Covering an Infodemic: Disinformation Surrounding COVID-19. International Center for Journalists (ICFJ). Retrieved from

Chan, M. S., Jones, C. R., Hall Jamieson, K., & Albarracín, D. (2017). Debunking: A Meta-Analysis of the Psychological Efficacy of Messages Countering Misinformation. Psychological Science, 28(11), 1531–1546.

Corner, J. (2017). Fake news, post-truth and media–political change. Media, Culture & Society, 39(7), 1100–1107.

Craan, F., & Oleske, D. M. (2002, December). Medical information and the internet: Do you know what you are getting? Journal of Medical Systems. Springer.

Cuan-Baltazar, J. Y., Muñoz-Perez, M. J., Robledo-Vega, C., Pérez-Zepeda, M. F., & Soto-Vega, E. (2020). Misinformation of COVID-19 on the Internet: Infodemiology Study. JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, 6(2), e18444.

Davis, D. L. (1984). Medical misinformation: Communication between outport Newfoundland women and their physicians. Social Science and Medicine, 18(3), 273–278.

de Regt, A., Montecchi, M., & Lord Ferguson, S. (2019). A false image of health: how fake news and pseudo-facts spread in the health and beauty industry. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 29(2), 168–179.

Djalante, R., Lassa, J., Setiamarga, D., Sudjatma, A., Indrawan, M., Haryanto, B., … Warsilah, H. (2020). Review and analysis of current responses to COVID-19 in Indonesia: Period of January to March 2020. Progress in Disaster Science, 6, 100091.

Fensi, F. (2018). FENOMENA HOAX: Tantangan terhadap Idealisme Media & Etika Bermedia. Bricolage : Jurnal Magister Ilmu Komunikasi, 4(02), 133.

Fensi, F. (2019). Paradoxic Language “Cebong-Kampret” in Facebook As a Mirror of the Political Language of Indonesia. Bricolage : Jurnal Magister Ilmu Komunikasi, 5(02), 103.

Fetzer, J. H. (2004). Disinformation: The Use of False Information. Minds and Machines, 14(2), 231–240.

Gao, X., & Yu, J. (2020). Public governance mechanism in the prevention and control of the COVID-19: information, decision-making and execution. Journal of Chinese Governance, 1–20.

Grace, R. (2020, March 20). COVID-19 prompts the spread of disinformation across MENA | Middle East Institute. Retrieved May 17, 2020, from

Hua, J., & Shaw, R. (2020). Corona virus (COVID-19) “infodemic” and emerging issues through a data lens: The case of china. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(7).

Ilahi, H. N. (2019). Women and Hoax News Processing on WhatsApp. Jurnal Ilmu Sosial Dan Ilmu Politik, 22(2), 98–111.

Krippendorff, K. (2013). Content analysis : an introduction to its methodology. SAGE. Retrieved from

Landon-Murray, M., Mujkic, E., & Nussbaum, B. (2019). Disinformation in Contemporary U.S. Foreign Policy: Impacts and Ethics in an Era of Fake News, Social Media, and Artificial Intelligence. Public Integrity, 21(5), 512–522.

Larson, H. J. (2020). Blocking information on COVID-19 can fuel the spread of misinformation. Nature, 580(7803), 306–306.

Lee Ventola, C. (2014). Social media and health care professionals: Benefits, risks, and best practices. P and T, 39(7), 491.

Molina, M. D., Sundar, S. S., Le, T., & Lee, D. (2019). “Fake News” Is Not Simply False Information: A Concept Explication and Taxonomy of Online Content. American Behavioral Scientist, 000276421987822.

Naskar, S. (2019). Viral or Virus?: A Content Analysis of Fake News Themes in the World’s Largest Democracy from Jan 2017-May 2019. University of Nevada.

Orso, D., Federici, N., Copetti, R., Vetrugno, L., & Bove, T. (2020). Infodemic and the spread of fake news in the COVID-19-era. European Journal of Emergency Medicine, 1.

Pennycook, G., McPhetres, J., Zhang, Y., & Rand, D. (2020). Fighting COVID-19 misinformation on social media: Experimental evidence for a scalable accuracy nudge intervention. PsyArXiv [Working Paper], 1–24.

Pulido Rodríguez, C., Villarejo Carballido, B., Redondo-Sama, G., Guo, M., Ramis, M., & Flecha, R. (2020). False news around COVID-19 circulated less on Sina Weibo than on Twitter. How to overcome false information? International and Multidisciplinary Journal of Social Sciences, 9(2), 1.

Radecki, R. P., & Spiegel, R. S. (2020). Avoiding Disinformation Traps in COVID-19. Annals of Emergency Medicine.

Ridout, B., & Campbell, A. (2018). The use of social networking sites in mental health interventions for young people: Systematic review. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 20(12), 1–11.

Roggenkamp, K. H. (2005). Narrating the News: New Journalism and Literary Genre in Late Nineteenth ... - Karen Hartmann Roggenkamp - Google Books. OH: Kent State University Press.

Shereen, M. A., Khan, S., Kazmi, A., Bashir, N., & Siddique, R. (2020, July 1). COVID-19 infection: Origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses. Journal of Advanced Research. Elsevier B.V.

Tan, S. S. L., & Goonawardene, N. (2017, January 1). Internet health information seeking and the patient-physician relationship: A systematic review. Journal of Medical Internet Research. Journal of Medical Internet Research.

Tandoc, E. C., Lim, Z. W., & Ling, R. (2018, February 7). Defining “Fake News”: A typology of scholarly definitions. Digital Journalism. Routledge.

Tasnim, S., Hossain, M. M., & Mazumder, H. (2020). Impact of rumors or misinformation on coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in social media. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.

Utami, P. (2019). Hoax in Modern Politics. Jurnal Ilmu Sosial Dan Ilmu Politik, 22(2), 85.

Vlăduţescu, Ş., & Tenescu, A. (2014). Current Communication Difficulties.

Wang, Y., McKee, M., Torbica, A., & Stuckler, D. (2019). Systematic Literature Review on the Spread of Health-related Misinformation on Social Media. Social Science and Medicine, 240(September), 112552.

Waszak, P. M., Kasprzycka-Waszak, W., & Kubanek, A. (2018). The spread of medical fake news in social media – The pilot quantitative study. Health Policy and Technology, 7(2), 115–118.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Indexed by:



Lantai 3 Ruang Pascasarjana - Universitas Bunda Mulia
Jl. Lodan Raya No. 2, Ancol – Jakarta Utara 14430, Indonesia
Telp: +62 21 692 9090 ext.1317


This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats