Putu Dinia Suryandani, I Gede Budasi


The teaching and learning process entails several encounters in which the teacher and students exchange a variety of utterances, particularly in language classes. Understanding language involves an understanding of pragmatics. Teaching and learning will be more successful if appropriate speech acts are used. Directive Speech Acts are a type of speech act that is frequently employed in classroom interactions. It is used by the teacher to give instruction, command the students to do something, limit the students’ bad behavior, etc. This study aims at investigating the types of directive speech acts and analyzing the functions of the acts used by English teachers at SMKN 1 Sawan. The theory of directive acts classification adopted in this study is the theory proposed by Ibrahim (1993). Ibrahim’s theory classified directive acts into six major types. They are requestive, question, requirement, prohibitive, permission and advisory. This research also focused on the functions of directive acts based on Amalsaleh, Yamini, and Yarmohammadi's (2004) theory. They are elicitation, instruction, advice, threat, and attention-getter. This research was a descriptive study with two teachers as the subjects of this research. Observation and recording were used as the technique in collecting the data. The validity of the data used is source and theory of triangulation. The results showed that the most frequent type of directive speech acts used by the teachers was question directive with occurance of 185 utterances (46.95%). Teachers that employ the question directive encourage students to be interested in the world around them, to enhance their abilities and attitudes toward science, and to enhance their speech communication and critical thinking.  The other functions of the acts were also identified in various types of the acts.


classroom interaction, directive speech acts, teacher’s utterance

Full Text:



Amalsaleh, E., Yamini, H., & Yarmohammadi, Y. (2004). Directives Used In University Classrooms. Journal of Literature and Language, 20–42.

Carey, J. W. (2009). Communication as Culture. 270 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10016: Routledge.

Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. (M. P. Scott, Ed.). University of Nebraska-Lincoln: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Enyi, A. U. (2016). Rhetorical Diplomacy: A Study of Nigeria’s President Muhammadu Buhari’s Speech to The 70th Session of The United Nations General Assembly, 4(2), 38–52.

Etikasari, D. (2012). Tindak Tutur Direktif dalam Wacana Kelas (Kajian Mikroetnografi terhadap Bahasa Guru), (I).

Fessehatsion, P. W. (2017). School Principal’s Role in Facilitating Change in Teaching-Learning Process: Teachers’ Attitude. A Case Study on Five Junior Schools in Asmara, Eritrea. Journal of Education and Practice, 8(6), 134–142. Retrieved from

Haryanto, M. H. (2018). Teacher ’ s Directive Expressions Analysis in English Teaching Classes. Lensa: Kajian Kebahasaan, Kesusastraan, Dan Budaya, 8(1), 22–42.

Ibrahim, A. S. (1993). Kajian Tindak Tutur. Usaha Nasional. Surabaya. Retrieved from

Kreidler, C. W. (2002). Introducing English Semantics. Routledge 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE.

Lacey, A., & Luff, D. (2009). Qualitative Data Analysis. University of Nottingham: The NIHR RDS.

Li, H., & Stylianides, A. J. (2017). An Examination of The Roles of The Teacher and Students during a Problem-Based Learning Intervention: Lessons Learned from a Study in a Taiwanese Primary Mathematics Classroom.

Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldana, J. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis (Third). Sage Publications, Inc.

Rafli, Z. (2018). English Speech Acts of Illocutionary Force in Class Interaction. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, (c). Retrieved from

Richards, J. C., & Schmidt, R. (2003). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (Fourth). London: Longman.

Rumaria, C. (2015). An Analysis of Speech Acts in The Dead Poets Society. Yogyakarta State University.

Saadatmandi, M., Khiabani, S. M., & Pourdana, N. (2018). Teaching English Pragmatic Features in EFL Context : A Focus on Request Speech Acts, 8(7), 829–835.

Salomon, G. (1992). Changing Role of the Teacher. 211 East Seventh Street Austin, Texas 78701: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. Retrieved from

Sari, K. P. (2018). Teacher’s Directive Speech Acts at Kindergarten School. VISION: Journal For Language and Foreign Language Learning, 7(1), 34–44.

Schleppegrell, M. J. (2004). The Language of Schooling: A Functional Linguistics Perspective. University of California, Davis: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publisher.

Searle, J. R. (1979). Expression and Meaning. Cambridge: University of Cambridge.

Sun, Z. (2012). An Empirical Study on New Teacher-student Relationship and Questioning Strategies in ESL Classroom Zuosheng. English Language Teaching, 5(7), 175–183. Retrieved from

Veysi, E., & Abbaszadeh, F. (2015). The Communicative Function of Intonation Processing in English and Persian- Perception of Implicit Directive Messages. International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies, 3, 73–85.

Wulansari, Y., & Suhartini, C. (2015). Directive Speech Acts Realization of Indonesian EFL Teacher. Journal of English Education, 3(2).

Yule, G. (1995). Pragmatics. Oxford University Press.



  • There are currently no refbacks.