Pilot Study: Characterizing Successful Beginning Reading in Indonesian

Harwintha Yuhria Anjarningsih


The investigation reported in this article aims to point out how the lexical and sub-lexical route are employed in normal beginning reading in Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian) and to identify reading performance that may suggest the occurrence of impaired reading in Bahasa Indonesia which is possibly displayed by the children with the lowest reading performance. Ten typical developing third-grade students participated in the study. Error pattems of those ten students are analysed for the error analysis and for the analysis on the relationship between psycholinguistic variables and reading perforrnance. Five of those students were recorded during the reading part and the data were used in the latency analysis. The prelirninary findings reported here seem to show that beginning reading in Bahasa Indonesia is characterised by the utilization of the sub-lexical route and more skilled reading by lexical route. The development of the lexical route depends on the development of the sublexical route which is influenced by the complexity of the Grapheme Phoneme Correspondence. The lexical route for words with simple graphemes is developed first, the lexical route for words with consonant clusters are developed later. The last to be developed is the lexical route for words with digraphi. Furthermore, Late AoA, imageability, syllable number, and resemblance to words influence the lexical processing of the stimuli in the test. Impaired reading seems to be characterised by less developed sub-lexical route as evidenced by difliculties with words containing consonant clusters and digraphs and longer latencies for reading aloud words and pseudowords.

Keywords: psycholinguistics, reading performance 

Full Text:



Alwi, H., S. Dardjowidjojo, H. Lapoliwa & A.M. Moeliono. (2003) Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia (third edition). Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.

Barry, C. & S. Gerhand. (2003). Both concreteness and age-of-acquisition afitect reading accuracy but only concreteness affects comprehension in a deep dyslexic patient. Brain and Language, 84, 84-104.

Beaton, A. A. (2004). Dyslexia, Reading and the Brain: A Sourcebook of Psychological and Biological Research. Hove: Psychology Press.

Bonin, P., C. Barry, A. Meot, & M. Chalard. (2004). The influence of age of acquisition in word reading and other tests: A never ending story? Journal of Memory and Language, 50, 456-476.

Coltheart, M. (1996). Phonological Dyslexia: Past and Future Issues. Cognitive Neuropsychology, I3(6), 749-762.

Coltheart, M., B. Curtis, P. Atkins, & M. Haller. (1993). Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches. Psychological Review, 100, No. 4, 589-608

Coltheart, V. (1988). Effects of word imageability and age of acquisition on children's reading. British Journal of Psychology, 79, 1.

De Bleser, R. 1dyslexial.pdf. EMCL 2005-2006 Developmental and Acquired Dyslexia and Dysgraphia class lecture document, University of Potsdam, Germany.

De Bleser, R. & R. Keim. (2002) "Sudtiroler Lesetest (1st Beta version)". Autonomous Province of Bolza.

Defior, S., F. Justicia, F. J. Martos. (1996). The influence of lexical and sublexical variables in normal and poor Spanish readers. Reading and Writing: An Interdtsciplinary Journal, 8, 487-497.

Ehri, L. C. (1995). Phases of development in learning to read words by sight. Journal of Research in Reading, 18(2),116-125.

Ehri, L. C. & L. S. Wilce. (1987). Cipher versus cue reading: An experiment in decoding acquisition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(1), 3-13.

Fawcett, A. J. & R. I. Nicolson. (1995). Persistence of phonological awareness deficits in older children with dyslexia. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 7, 361-376.

Field, John. Psycholinguistics: The Key Concepts. London: Routledge.

Funnel, E. (2000). Deep dyslexia. In E. Funnel (ed.) Case Studies in the Neuropsychology of Reading. Hove: Psychology Press Ltd.

Gerhand, S. & C. Bany. (2000). When does a deep dyslexic make a semantic error? The roles of age of acquisition, concreteness, and frequency. Brain and Language, 74, 26-47.

Goswami, U. & P. Bryant. (1990). Phonological Skills and Learning to Read. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Ltd.

Harm M. W. & M. S. Seidenberg. (1999). Phonology, reading acquisition, and dyslexia: Insights from connectionist models. Psychological Review, 106(3), 491-528.

Hynd, George W. (1983). Dyslexia: Neuropsychological theory, research, and clinical differentiation. New York: Grune & Stratton.

Iribarren, C., G. Jarema & A. R. Lecours. (1999). Lexical reading in Spanish: Two cases of phonological dyslexia. Applied Psycholinguistics, 20, 407-428.

Liberman, L. Y., D. Shankweiler, F. W. Fischer, B. Carter. (1974). Explicit syllable and phoneme segmentation in the young child. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 18, 201-212.

Lindgren, S. D., E. de Renzi, L. C. Richman. (1985). Cross-national comparisons of developmental dyslexia in Italy and the United States. Child Development, 56(6), 1404-1417.

Masterson, Jackie. (2000). Developmental surface dyslexia. In Elaine Funnel (ed.). Case Studies in Neuropsychology of Reading (pp. 123-148). Hove: Psychology Press Ltd. Publishers.

Morrison, C. & A. Ellis. (1995). Roles of word frequency and age of acquisition on word naming and lexical decision. Journal of Experimental Psychology, Learning, Memory and Cognition, 21(1), 116-133.

Morrison, C. & A. Ellis. (2000). Real age of acquisition effect in word naming and lexical decision. British Journal of Psychology, 91, 167-180.

Nopola-Hemmi, Jaanamarja. (2002). Familial Dyslexia: Genetic and Neuropsychological Findings. Online material, Helsinki University Biomedical Dissertation.

Paulesu, E., J. –F. Demonet, F. Fazio, E. McCrory, V. Chanoine, N Brunswick, S. F. Cappa, G. Cossu, M. Habib, C. D. Frith, U. Frith. (2001). Dyslexia: Cultural diversity and biological unity. Journal of Simplified Spelling Society, 29, 14-18.

Plaut, D. C. (1999). A connectionist approach to acquired word reading and acquired dyslexia: Extension to sequential processing. Cognitive Science, 23(4), 543-568.

R Development Core Team. (2005). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, URL http://www.R-project.org.

Rack, J. P., M. J. Snowling, & R. K. Olsen. (1992). The nonword reading deficit in developmental dyslexia: A review. Reading Research Quarterly, 21(1), 28-53.

Riccio, C. A. & G. W. Hynd. (1995). Contributions of neuropsychology to our understanding of developmental reading problems. School Psychology Review, 24(3).

Seidenberg, M. S. (1993). A connectionist modelling approach to word recognition and dyslexia. Psychological Science, 4(5), 299-304.

Siegel, L. S. (1992). An evaluation of the discrepancy definition of dyslexia. Journal of Learning Disablities, 25(10), 618-629.

Siegel, L. S. (1998). Phonological Processing Deficits and Reading Disabilities. In J. M. Metsala & L. C. Ehri (eds.) Word Recognition in Beginning Literacy. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Snowling, Margaret J. (2000). Dyslexia. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.

Stanovich, K. E. (1980). Toward an interactive-compensatory model of individual differences in the development of reading fluency. Reading Research Quarterly, 16(1), 32-71.

Tim Bina Karya Guru. (2004). Bina Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia untuk Sekolah Dasar Kelas 1. Jakarta: Penerbit Erlangga.

Treiman, R. Onsets and rimes as units of spoken syllables: Evidence from children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 39, 161-181.

Von Euler, K., Ingvar Lundberg, & Gunnar Lennerstrand (eds.). (1989). Brain and Reading: Structural and Functional Anomalies in Developmental Dyslexia with Special Reference to Hemispheric Interactions, Memory Functions, Linguistics Processes and Visual Analysis in Reading. HampshireL The Macmillan Press Ltd.

Wagner, R. K. & J. K. Torgesen. (1987). The nature of phonological processing and its causal role in the acquisition of reading skills. Psychological Bulletin, 101(2), 192-212.

Wimmer, H. & U. Goswami. (1994). The Influence of orthographic consistency on reading development: word recognition in English and German children. Cognition, 51, 91-103.

Zoccolotti, P., M. De Luca, E. Di Pace, A. Judica, M. Orlandi, & D. Spinelli. (1999). Markers of developmental surface dyslaexia in a language (Italian) with high grapheme-phoneme correspondence. Applied Psycholinguistics, 20, 191-216.


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30813/jelc.v2i1.1035


  • There are currently no refbacks.